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Ytes. Conclusions: These results demonstrate that in RBA-1 cells, activation of c-Jun/AP-1 by a CaMKII-dependent PI3K/ Akt-JNK activation mediated through transactivation of PDGFR is essential for up-regulation of MMP-9 and cell migration induced by LTA. Understanding the regulatory mechanisms underlying LTA-induced MMP-9 expression and functional changes in astrocytes may provide a new therapeuti